Types and Characteristics of Optical Fibers: Standard Single-Mode Fiber (G.652)
141 2024-06-05


Optical fiber communication technology is a crucial component of modern communication networks. The types and characteristics of optical fibers directly impact the performance and applications of communication systems. Standard single-mode fiber (G.652) is one of the most commonly used types of optical fiber, renowned for its excellent performance and wide range of applications. This article will provide a detailed introduction to the structure, characteristics, and applications of standard single-mode fiber (G.652) in the communication field.


Overview of Standard Single-Mode Fiber (G.652)

Standard single-mode fiber (G.652) is a type of single-mode fiber defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T). Its main features are low attenuation and dispersion. G.652 fiber is suitable for optical communication at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm, making it the preferred choice for long-distance optical fiber communication systems.



 


Structural Characteristics

The core diameter of G.652 fiber is typically 8-10 microns, with a cladding diameter of 125 microns. The difference in refractive index between the core and cladding allows the light signal to propagate within the core, thereby reducing signal loss. The outer layer of the fiber is usually composed of a plastic protective coating, providing mechanical protection and environmental resistance.

 

Optical Characteristics

1. Attenuation Characteristics: G.652 fiber has the lowest attenuation at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm, approximately 0.35 dB/km and 0.20 dB/km, respectively. This low attenuation characteristic makes G.652 fiber highly suitable for long-distance transmission.





2.
 Dispersion Characteristics: At a wavelength of 1310 nm, the dispersion of G.652 fiber is close to zero, significantly reducing signal distortion during transmission. Although dispersion is higher at 1550 nm (about 17 ps/nm·km), this issue can be effectively addressed using dispersion compensation techniques.

3. Mode Field Diameter: The mode field diameter of G.652 fiber is about 9.2±0.4 microns at 1310 nm and about 10.4±0.5 microns at 1550 nm. A larger mode field diameter helps reduce nonlinear effects and improve system performance.



 


Mechanical Characteristics

G.652 fiber has excellent mechanical strength and bending performance. Its tensile strength typically exceeds 5 GPa, and it can maintain optical performance with a bending radius as small as 30 mm. These characteristics enable G.652 fiber to operate reliably in various complex environments.

 

Application Scenarios

1. Long-Distance Communication: Due to its low attenuation and dispersion characteristics, G.652 fiber is widely used in long-distance backbone networks and metropolitan area networks. For instance, in submarine cable systems and international fiber optic communications, G.652 fiber is one of the most commonly used types.





2. Access Networks: G.652 fiber is also commonly used in access networks, particularly in applications such as Fiber to the Home (FTTH) and Fiber to the Building (FTTB). Its excellent transmission performance and flexible installation make G.652 fiber an important foundation for achieving high-speed broadband access.

3. Data Centers: With the expanding scale of data centers, the demand for high-speed, low-latency fiber connections is increasing. G.652 fiber, with its low attenuation and high bandwidth characteristics, is an ideal choice for connections within and between data centers.



 

Future Development

Although G.652 fiber holds a significant position in current optical fiber communication systems, new types of optical fibers and higher-performance materials are continuously emerging with technological advancements. For example, G.654 fiber and G.657 fiber demonstrate better performance in specific application scenarios. However, G.652 fiber, with its mature technology and extensive application base, will continue to play a critical role in future communication networks.



 

Standard single-mode fiber (G.652) is an indispensable part of modern optical fiber communication networks due to its low attenuation, low dispersion, and excellent mechanical characteristics. Through continuous optimization and improvement, G.652 fiber will continue to play a key role in meeting the growing demands of communication. Whether in long-distance communication, access networks, or data centers, G.652 fiber will provide a solid foundation for high-speed, reliable optical communication.